Tattoos have been around for as many as 5000 years and although the techniques have changed, the pigment that is used in the tattoos remains pretty much the same. A company called Freedom-2 is currently developing a new brand of tattoo ink that is easily removed by one simple trip with a laser. The ink is injected into the skin with a translucent polymer bead, which allows the wearer to be exposed to less pigment. If the wearer decides that they don’t want their tattoo anymore, a laser is used to break down the ink. The body then absorbs the ink. This method is a welcome replacement to the method used now, which consists of months of laser treatments and unknown outcomes of what the skin will look like when the tattoo is finally removed.

Kathryn,
OK. Off to a decent start. 5 stars. MW

When crude oil is first pulled out and sits as a mixture, it is completely useless. In order to make the mixture useful, it has to go through a process called fractional distillation. During this process, the hydrocarbons are boiled out and the ending result is different forms of the oil. I found it interesting that industries use this process but in much larger scales and in huge columns. It is also interesting that you can get many different forms of the crude oil that can be used for many different things by the distillation process.

Kathryn,
Yes crude oil touches virtually everything we use. MW


All units of measurement in the metric system have to have a certain prototype that they are based off of so that the world may be on a relatively uniform level when it comes to measurement. The kilogram for instance is the last unit of measurement that still has a physical prototype. However, over the years it came to lose 50 micrograms which caused an uproar in the scientific community. I found it interesting that such a tiny change in mass can cause such a difference and throw off all other kilograms that are compared to this prototype. Yet, as we are beginning to learn in class, measuring correct amounts is very important when you are in science, especially when you are dealing with chemicals in an experimental way. I also found it very interesting that scientists decided to use old methods such as Avogadro's constant and Planck's constant that are at the heart of chemistry to try to restore the kilogram back to its original mass.

Kathryn,
You have a nice writing style. 5 stars. MW


It is amazing to think that most of the elements that we know and have today all share the same origin-a star. I could not believe that a supernova could hold so many different elements in one place, especially without them reacting with each other. I didn't know that stars are comprised of mostly hydrogen and that most of the first 28 elements were formed off of this in almost a chain reaction way, If so many elements were formed from this one star, does that mean that other stars may contain other elements that are not yet known to man?

Good question Katie. Most like not since heavy elements tend to be unstable. 5 stars. MW

I found it interesting that Avogadro didn't actually coin the term "mole" and that he didn't actually discover it. He did pave the way for other scientists however to discover the mole. The calculation of the mole is not a mathematical calculation but rather a calculation derived directly from a substance's weight. Since the mole is calculated with measurement, there is always a limitation. You can never get a completely accurate number of moles because it is a measurement and it will not always be precise.

Good comments Kate. I like your comment on measurement. 5 stars. MW

I never knew that something as small and simple as dust or sugar could cause such a massive explosion. It really makes me wonder why there aren't more precautions in factories and such if an explosion can take place so easily ang human lives are at risk. The article mentioned that once a particle is exposed to even the smallest amount of a stimulant, the explosion is rapid and destructive. I definitely think that the Chemical Safety & Hazard and Investigation Board and the Occupational Safety & Health Administration should thoroughly investigate this phenomena and take measures to prevent such explosions from happening.

Katie,
OSHA is definitely investigating this incident! Good thoughts! 5 stars. MW

While reading this article, one of the most basic things that I knew about sulfur hexafluoride is that it has one sulfur atom and six fluorine atoms as the name implies. I found it a surprise however that two elements that are so volatile can form a bond that is stable enough to be breathed in. I also knew that breathing in helium could be potentially dangerous because the gas might be tainted from outside sources or unwelcome substances inside the tank. It surprised me that the gag reflex that you have when you need a breath of fresh air is actually because you have a build up of carbon dioxide in your bloodstream, not because of the lack of oxygen. I also previously knew that fluorine atoms had a strong attraction for electrons because fluorine is very reactive. I found it interesting that a balloon with sulfur hexafluoride will increase in size over time as opposed to a balloon filled with helium that will shrink. I never knew this.

Katie,
Wow you got a lot out of these articles! 5 helios! MW


I found this article very interesting because I've always wondered how motion detector lights work. I can't really say that I knew too much about the topic other than you can set off a motion detector light by intercepting a light source that is set up to go off once something moves in its way. I also had heard of motion detection technology using infrared light to detect movement. I also knew that light was transformed into a nerve impulse and sent along the optic nerve to the brain to create vision. I found it interesting that motion detectors can sense body warmth in order to set the device off. I also didn't know that it's the individual particle energy that matters when it comes to the photoelectric effect. Yet another thing that surprised me was that for everything that Einstein had ever done, it was his work on the photoelectric effect that won him the Nobel Prize in 1921.

Katie,

Looks good! Seems you knew and learned a few things. 5 stars! MW